Native Parallel Client

API documentation for the ssh2-python (libssh2) based parallel client.

class pssh.clients.native.parallel.ParallelSSHClient(hosts, user=None, password=None, port=22, pkey=None, num_retries=3, timeout=None, pool_size=100, allow_agent=True, host_config=None, retry_delay=5, proxy_host=None, proxy_port=None, proxy_user=None, proxy_password=None, proxy_pkey=None, forward_ssh_agent=False, keepalive_seconds=60, identity_auth=True, ipv6_only=False)

ssh2-python based parallel client.

Parameters:
  • hosts (list(str)) – Hosts to connect to
  • user (str) – (Optional) User to login as. Defaults to logged in user
  • password (str) – (Optional) Password to use for login. Defaults to no password
  • port (int) – (Optional) Port number to use for SSH connection. Defaults to 22.
  • pkey (str or bytes) – Private key file path or private key data to use. Paths must be str type and either absolute path or relative to user home directory like ~/<path>. Bytes type input is used as private key data for authentication.
  • num_retries (int) – (Optional) Number of connection and authentication attempts before the client gives up. Defaults to 3.
  • retry_delay (int or float) – Number of seconds to wait between retries. Defaults to pssh.constants.RETRY_DELAY
  • timeout (int or float) –

    (Optional) Global timeout setting in seconds for all remote operations including all SSH client operations DNS, opening connections, reading output from remote servers, et al.

    For concurrent functions this is a cumulative timeout setting for all concurrent operations. These functions, eg run_command and join, also allow timeout to be set just for those functions if not set globally via this option.

    For per host operations like list(host_out.stdout) for reading output it is applied per host if set. Host output read timeout can also be set separately via run_command(<..>, read_timeout=<seconds>) Defaults to OS default - usually 60 seconds.

  • pool_size (int) – (Optional) Greenlet pool size. Controls concurrency, on how many hosts to execute tasks in parallel. Defaults to 100. Overhead in event loop will determine how high this can be set to, see scaling guide lines in project’s readme.
  • host_config (list(pssh.config.HostConfig)) – (Optional) Per-host configuration for cases where not all hosts use the same configuration.
  • allow_agent (bool) – (Optional) set to False to disable connecting to the system’s SSH agent.
  • identity_auth (bool) – (Optional) set to False to disable attempting to authenticate with default identity files from pssh.clients.base_ssh_client.BaseSSHClient.IDENTITIES
  • proxy_host (str) – (Optional) SSH host to tunnel connection through so that SSH clients connect to host via client -> proxy_host -> host
  • proxy_port (int) – (Optional) SSH port to use to login to proxy host if set. Defaults to 22.
  • proxy_user (str) – (Optional) User to login to proxy_host as. Defaults to logged in user.
  • proxy_password (str) – (Optional) Password to login to proxy_host with. Defaults to no password.
  • proxy_pkey (str or bytes) – (Optional) Private key file to be used for authentication with proxy_host. Defaults to available keys from SSHAgent and user’s SSH identities. Bytes type input is used as private key data for authentication.
  • forward_ssh_agent (bool) – (Optional) Turn on SSH agent forwarding. Currently unused.
  • ipv6_only (bool) – Choose IPv6 addresses only if multiple are available for the host(s) or raise NoIPv6AddressFoundError otherwise. Note this will disable connecting to an IPv4 address if an IP address is provided instead.
Raises:

pssh.exceptions.PKeyFileError on errors finding provided private key.

copy_file(local_file, remote_file, recurse=False, copy_args=None)

Copy local file to remote file in parallel via SFTP.

This function returns a list of greenlets which can be join-ed on to wait for completion.

gevent.joinall() function may be used to join on all greenlets and will also raise exceptions from them if called with raise_error=True - default is False.

Alternatively call .get() on each greenlet to raise any exceptions from it.

Exceptions listed here are raised when either gevent.joinall(<greenlets>, raise_error=True) or .get() on each greenlet are called, not this function itself.

Parameters:
  • local_file (str) – Local filepath to copy to remote host
  • remote_file (str) – Remote filepath on remote host to copy file to
  • recurse (bool) – Whether or not to descend into directories recursively.
  • copy_args (tuple or list) – (Optional) format local_file and remote_file strings with per-host arguments in copy_args. copy_args length must equal length of host list - pssh.exceptions.HostArgumentError is raised otherwise
Return type:

list(gevent.Greenlet) of greenlets for remote copy commands

Raises:

ValueError when a directory is supplied to local_file and recurse is not set

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.HostArgumentError on number of per-host copy arguments not equal to number of hosts

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.SFTPError on SFTP initialisation errors

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.SFTPIOError on I/O errors writing via SFTP

Raises:

OSError on local OS errors like permission denied

Note

Remote directories in remote_file that do not exist will be created as long as permissions allow.

copy_remote_file(remote_file, local_file, recurse=False, suffix_separator='_', copy_args=None, encoding='utf-8')

Copy remote file(s) in parallel via SFTP as <local_file><suffix_separator><host>

With a local_file value of myfile and default separator _ the resulting filename will be myfile_myhost for the file from host myhost.

This function, like ParallelSSHClient.copy_file(), returns a list of greenlets which can be join-ed on to wait for completion.

gevent.joinall() function may be used to join on all greenlets and will also raise exceptions if called with raise_error=True - default is False.

Alternatively call .get on each greenlet to raise any exceptions from it.

Exceptions listed here are raised when either gevent.joinall(<greenlets>, raise_error=True) is called or .get is called on each greenlet, not this function itself.

Parameters:
  • remote_file (str) – remote filepath to copy to local host
  • local_file (str) – local filepath on local host to copy file to
  • recurse (bool) – whether or not to recurse
  • suffix_separator (str) – (Optional) Separator string between filename and host, defaults to _. For example, for a local_file value of myfile and default separator the resulting filename will be myfile_myhost for the file from host myhost. suffix_separator has no meaning if copy_args is provided
  • copy_args (tuple or list) – (Optional) format remote_file and local_file strings with per-host arguments in copy_args. copy_args length must equal length of host list - pssh.exceptions.HostArgumentError is raised otherwise
  • encoding (str) – Encoding to use for file paths.
Return type:

list(gevent.Greenlet) of greenlets for remote copy commands

Raises:

ValueError when a directory is supplied to local_file and recurse is not set

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.HostArgumentError on number of per-host copy arguments not equal to number of hosts

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.SFTPError on SFTP initialisation errors

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.SFTPIOError on I/O errors reading from SFTP

Raises:

OSError on local OS errors like permission denied

Note

Local directories in local_file that do not exist will be created as long as permissions allow.

Note

File names will be de-duplicated by appending the hostname to the filepath separated by suffix_separator.

run_command(command, sudo=False, user=None, stop_on_errors=True, use_pty=False, host_args=None, shell=None, encoding='utf-8', read_timeout=None)

Run command on all hosts in parallel, honoring self.pool_size, and return output.

This function will block until all commands have been received by remote servers and then return immediately.

More explicitly, function will return after connection and authentication establishment in the case of on new connections and after execute commands have been accepted by successfully established SSH channels.

Any connection and/or authentication exceptions will be raised here and need catching unless run_command is called with stop_on_errors=False in which case exceptions are added to individual host output instead.

Parameters:
  • command (str) – Command to run
  • sudo (bool) – (Optional) Run with sudo. Defaults to False
  • user (str) – (Optional) User to run command as. Requires sudo access for that user from the logged in user account.
  • stop_on_errors (bool) – (Optional) Raise exception on errors running command. Defaults to True. With stop_on_errors set to False, exceptions are instead added to output of run_command. See example usage below.
  • shell (str) – (Optional) Override shell to use to run command with. Defaults to login user’s defined shell. Use the shell’s command syntax, eg shell=’bash -c’ or shell=’zsh -c’.
  • use_pty (bool) – (Optional) Enable/Disable use of pseudo terminal emulation. Defaults to False
  • host_args (tuple or list) – (Optional) Format command string with per-host arguments in host_args. host_args length must equal length of host list - pssh.exceptions.HostArgumentError is raised otherwise
  • encoding (str) – Encoding to use for command string and output. Must be valid Python codec
  • read_timeout (float) – (Optional) Timeout in seconds for reading from stdout or stderr. Reading from stdout/stderr will raise pssh.exceptions.Timeout after timeout seconds when set if remote output is not ready.
Return type:

list(pssh.output.HostOutput)

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.AuthenticationError on authentication error

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.UnknownHostError on DNS resolution error

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.ConnectionError on error connecting

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.HostArgumentError on number of host arguments not equal to number of hosts

Raises:

TypeError on not enough host arguments for cmd string format

Raises:

KeyError on no host argument key in arguments dict for cmd string format

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.ProxyError on errors connecting to proxy if a proxy host has been set.

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.Timeout on timeout starting command.

Raises:

Exceptions from ssh2.exceptions for all other specific errors such as ssh2.exceptions.SocketDisconnectError et al.

scp_recv(remote_file, local_file, recurse=False, copy_args=None, suffix_separator='_')

Copy remote file(s) in parallel via SCP as <local_file><suffix_separator><host> or as per copy_args argument.

With a local_file value of myfile and default separator _ the resulting filename will be myfile_myhost for the file from host myhost.

De-duplication behaviour is configurable by providing copy_args argument, see below.

This function, like ParallelSSHClient.scp_send(), returns a list of greenlets which can be join-ed on to wait for completion.

gevent.joinall() function may be used to join on all greenlets and will also raise exceptions if called with raise_error=True - default is False.

Alternatively call .get on each greenlet to raise any exceptions from it.

Exceptions listed here are raised when either gevent.joinall(<greenlets>, raise_error=True) is called or .get is called on each greenlet, not this function itself.

Parameters:
  • remote_file (str) – remote filepath to copy to local host
  • local_file (str) – local filepath on local host to copy file to
  • recurse (bool) – whether or not to recurse
  • suffix_separator (str) – (Optional) Separator string between filename and host, defaults to _. For example, for a local_file value of myfile and default separator the resulting filename will be myfile_myhost for the file from host myhost. suffix_separator has no meaning if copy_args is provided
  • copy_args (tuple or list) – (Optional) format remote_file and local_file strings with per-host arguments in copy_args. copy_args length must equal length of host list - pssh.exceptions.HostArgumentError is raised otherwise
Return type:

list(gevent.Greenlet) of greenlets for remote copy commands.

Raises:

ValueError when a directory is supplied to local_file and recurse is not set.

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.HostArgumentError on number of per-host copy arguments not equal to number of hosts.

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.SCPError on errors copying file.

Raises:

OSError on local OS errors like permission denied.

Note

Local directories in local_file that do not exist will be created as long as permissions allow.

Note

File names will be de-duplicated by appending the hostname to the filepath separated by suffix_separator or as per copy_args argument if provided.

scp_send(local_file, remote_file, recurse=False, copy_args=None)

Copy local file to remote file in parallel via SCP.

This function returns a list of greenlets which can be join-ed on to wait for completion.

gevent.joinall() function may be used to join on all greenlets and will also raise exceptions from them if called with raise_error=True - default is False.

Alternatively call .get() on each greenlet to raise any exceptions from it.

Note

Creating remote directories when either remote_file contains directory paths or recurse is enabled requires SFTP support on the server as libssh2 SCP implementation lacks directory creation support.

Parameters:
  • local_file (str) – Local filepath to copy to remote host
  • remote_file (str) – Remote filepath on remote host to copy file to
  • recurse (bool) – Whether or not to descend into directories recursively.
Return type:

list(gevent.Greenlet) of greenlets for remote copy commands.

Raises:

pssh.exceptions.SCPError on errors copying file.

Raises:

OSError on local OS errors like permission denied.